美垃圾掩埋場滲水 驗出新興汙染物質

Category: 水新聞 Created: Wednesday, 20 August 2014 05:09
Hits: 810
摘譯自2014年8月15日ENS美國,維吉尼亞州,萊斯頓報導;Chiang Wei Chen編譯;蔡麗伶審校

從一處營運中掩埋場的人孔接入點蒐集垃圾滲出水樣本。(圖:Dana Kolpin、USGS。)美國地質調查局(USGS)研究人員指出,醫療用品、個人衛生用品和其他污染物質正隨著掩埋場的垃圾滲出水四處散佈。

USGS從全美19處營運中的掩埋場蒐集了垃圾滲出水,第一次針對這些新興化學物質進行評估。

他們針對包括藥物、衛生用品、家用化學品、殺蟲劑和塑膠等202種化學物質,分析了未經處理並且尚未進入環境中的垃圾滲出水樣本。

202種化學物質中,科學家找到了129樣。最常見的化學物質包括:

  • 雙酚A:存在95%的樣本中,用來製作塑膠和樹脂
  • 尼古丁(nicotine)代謝產物cotinine:存在95%的樣本中
  • 待乙妥:存在95%的樣本中,又名DEET,是一種驅蟲劑
  • 利多卡因:存在89%的樣本中,用於止癢和局部麻醉
  • 樟腦:存在84%的樣本中,用於多種藥物和乳液

USGS研究團隊主持人Dana Kolpin說,「這是USGS針對掩埋場滲出水中新興污染物質進行量化研究的第一步。後續研究將探討經處理和未經處理的滲出水進入環境後的汙染物質濃度。」

滲出水中的各種化學物質濃度甚異。家用和工業用化學品濃度最高,處方和非處方藥物第二高,類固醇激素濃度最低;濃度最高的化學物質是「對甲酚」,用來作為增塑劑、阻燃劑、油、橡膠、聚合物中的抗氧化劑以及木材防腐劑。

「不出所料,我們發現濕度較高地區的掩埋場化學物質濃度,比濕度較低地區來的高。整體來說,這個研究有助了解掩埋場中新興污染物的來源。」

此篇研究「美國本土掩埋場未經處理滲出水中的新興污染物」發表於《環境科學:過程與衝擊》期刊中。

Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals Contaminate Landfill Waste Water
RESTON, Virginia, August 15, 2014 (ENS)

Pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and other contaminants are widespread in water that has passed through landfill waste, called leachate, according to researchers with the U.S. Geological Survey.

In the first national assessment of these chemicals of emerging concern, USGS scientists collected leachate from 19 active landfills across the United States.

They analyzed the untreated leachate samples – before treatment and environmental release – for 202 chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, hygiene products, home-use chemicals, pesticides, plastics.

Of the 202 chemicals investigated, the scientists found 129.

Chemicals commonly detected include:

•       bisphenol A: found in 95 percent of samples, used to make plastics and resins
•       cotinine: detected in 95 percent of samples, a chemical formed from nicotine
•       N,N-diethyltoluamide: detected in 95 percent of samples, also known as DEET, an insect repellent
•       lidocaine: detected in 89 percent of samples, used as anti-itching and local anesthetic
•       camphor: detected in 84 percent of samples, used in a variety of medicines and lotions

“This represents the first step in USGS efforts to quantify the contribution of contaminants of emerging concern in leachate from active landfills to the environment,” said Dana Kolpin, the USGS research team leader. “Follow-up research will examine contaminant concentrations in treated and untreated leachate that is released to the environment.”

Of the chemicals found, concentrations varied. Home-use and industrial chemicals were found in the highest concentrations, prescription and nonprescription pharmaceuticals were the next highest, while steroid hormone concentrations were the lowest.

The most concentrated chemical found was para-cresol, used as a plasticizer and flame-retardant, antioxidant in oils, rubber, polymers, and as a wood preservative.

“As expected, we found more chemicals and generally higher concentrations in landfills from wetter regions compared to those from drier regions,” said USGS scientist Jason Masoner, the study’s primary author. “Overall, this study provides a better understanding of sources of contaminants of emerging concern in landfills.”

The paper, “Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Fresh Leachate from Landfills in the Conterminous United States,” has been published in the journal, “Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts.”

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

Read more http://e-info.org.tw/node/101537